[Korean grammar] -(으)ㄹ세라,-는 양,-는 한편,-(으)ㄹ 턱이 없다

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The expressions we will study here are not used as frequently as the ones we studied but they sometimes appear on Korean proficiency tests. Studying these expressions will help you not only with Korean proficiency tests but also with having more natural conversations with Koreans.

-(으)ㄹ세라
This expression is used to indicate that the speaker’s anxiety or worry about the occurrence of the content of the preceding clause forms the reason or basis for doing the action stated in the following clause.
• 아내는 아이들이 추울세라 장갑에 목도리까지 하게 했다.
Worrying that the children would be cold, my wife made them wear gloves and scarves.
• 세영이는 자신의 하얀색 원피스에 뭐라도 묻을세라 무척이나 조심을 했다.
Seyoung was extremely careful with her white dress out of fear that she would get a stain on it.
• 강연자의 이야기를 한마디 라도 놓칠세라 청중들은 부지 런히 메모를 했다.
The members of the audience diligently took notes lest they miss even a word that the speaker was saying.

This expression can be replaced with -(으)ㄹ까 봐 with no major change in meaning. However, note that -(으)ㄹ세라 has a slightly more literary and old-fashioned nuance.
• 아내는 아이들이 추울까 봐 장갑에 목도리까지 하게 했다.
• 세영이는 자신의 하얀색 원피스에 뭐라도 묻을까 봐 무척이나 조심을 했다.

-는 양
This expression is used to indicate that the action or situation described in the following clause is, or appears to be, just like that described in the preceding clause.

• 동호 씨는 자신이 사장이라도 된 양 나에게 이것저것을 시키더라고요.
Dongho ordered me to do all sorts of things as if he had become the boss.
• 윤주 씨는 항상 모든 걸 다 아는 양 행동해서 사람들의 미움을 샀다.
Yunju incurred the displeasure of everyone because she always acted as if she knew everything.
• 그 사람은 마치 오래 전부터 알고 지냈던 사이인 양 친숙하게 말을 걸었다.
That person approached me in a very familiar manner as if we had known each other for a very long time.

This expression can be replaced with -는 듯이 with almost no major change in meaning. However, note that -는 양 has a more literary nuance than -는 듯이.
• 동호 씨는 자신이 상사라도 된 듯이 나에게 이것저것을 시키더라고요.
• 윤주 씨는 항상 모든 걸 다 아는 듯이 행동해서 사람들의 미움을 샀다.

-는 한편
This expression is used to indicate simultaneously doing two actions or the simultaneous occurrence of two situations.
• 안박문 후보자는 유세에서 자신의 업적을 드러내는 한편 상대 후보의 정책을 비난했다.
While campaigning, candidate Ahn Bakmun boasted of his achievements while criticizing his opponent’s policies.
• 윤 교수는 암 치료에 관한 연구를 꾸준히 하는 한편 후배 의乂!들을 양성하는 데에도 게을리하지 않았다.
Professor Yoon not only worked nonstop on his cancer treatment research, but he also never neglected to help train the doctors under him.
• 사회가 변화함에 따라 새로운 직업들이 대거 생겨나는 한편 기존의 직업들도 많이 사라지고 있다.
Along with the changing society, new professions have emerged at a rapid rate while a lot of existing professions have disappeared.


-(으)ㄹ 턱이 없다 
This expression is used to strongly indicate the speaker’s belief, based on past experience, that something is clearly not the case. As an expression with a strong negative nuance, it should not be used in situations when modesty is appropriate.

가: 산골이긴 해도 인터넷은 되지요?
Even though it’s the countryside, there is still Internet, right?
나: 전기도 제대로 들어오지 않는 이곳에 인터넷이 될 턱이 없잖아요.
There’s no way they could have Internet service here when they don’t even have proper electric power.

가: 월급이 깎인다는 얘기를 듣고 직원들 반응이 어때요?
How are the employees reacting to the news about the pay cuts?
나: 월급을 삭감한다는데 사람들 기분이 좋을 턱이 없지요.
They are obviously not happy at all about getting cuts in their salaries.

가: 영주 씨가 발표를 잘했을까요?
Do you think Youngju’s presentation went well?
나: 그렇게 준비를 하는 둥 마는 둥 했는데 잘했을 턱이 없어요.
Seeing how half-heartedly she prepared, there’s no way she did well.

In this expression, 없다 can be replaced with 있다,but in such cases, it is used in the forms -(으)ㄹ 턱이 있어요? and -(으)ㄹ 턱이 있겠어요? and expresses the same basic meaning.
• 전혀 움직이지 않고 먹어 대는데 살이 빠질 턱이 있어요?
• 네가 수영 씨에게 그렇게 잔소리를 하는데 수영 씨인들 널 좋아할 턱이 있겠어?

>> Full of ‘Korean grammar in use – Advanced’: Click here
>> Full of ‘Korean grammar in use – Intermediate’: Click here

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