[Korean grammar] -(으)므로, -(으)나,-(으)며


The expressions we will learn here are used primarily in written language and formal situations such as speeches and presentations. They can be used to replace the following expressions learned in the beginning level: -(으)니까, -아서/어서, -지만, -고, and -(으)면서.

This expression is used to indicate the cause, reason, or basis for the following clause. It is mainly used in written language and formal expressions in speeches and presentations.

• 다리를 꼬고 앉거나 비스듬히 기대앉으면 척추가 비뜰어지므로 좋지 않다.
It’s not good to sit with your legs crossed or at an angle because your spine will be crooked.

• 이 상품은 중도에 해지가 안 되므로 계약하기 전에 신중하게 생각하십시오.
Think carefully before you decide to sign the contract because this product cannot be canceled midway through.

• 선호가 아무 말도 안 하고 가만히 있었으므로 모두들 그가 화가 났다고 생각했다.
Everyone thought Sunho was angry because he remained silent and did not say anything.

This expression cannot be used together with -겠- to indicate supposition or the future tense.
• 이번 주말에는 바람도 강하고 기온 변화도 심하겠으므로 건강 관리에 신경 쓰십시오. ( X )
->이번 주말에는 바람도 강하고 기온 병화도 심하겠으니 건강 관리에 신경 쓰십시오. (〇)

This expression is used when indicating a situation or action that is contrary or opposite to that stated in the preceding clause. It is commonly used in written language.
• 유명한 전문가들로 팀을 구성해서 해외에 출장을 보냈으나 성과는 기대에 못 미쳤다.
Despite assembling a team of renowned professionals and sending them abroad, their results did not meet expectations.

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• 정부는 나라를 안정시키고자 애를 쓰고 있으나 테러는 좀처럼 잦아들지 않고 있다.
Although the government has put a lot of effort into stabilizing the nation, terrorism is hardly subsiding.

• 어느새 3월 중순이나 아직 아침과 저녁은 겨울만큼 쌀쌀하다.
Despite the fact that it’s already the middle of March, the mornings and evenings are still as chilly as winter.

(1). This expression is used when listing two or more actions or states on equal terms. It is mainly used in written language and formal situations.

• 소비자들이 주로 어떤 제품을 구입했으며 언제 구입했는지 조사할 필요가 있다.
It is necessary to investigate mainly what products consumers were buying and when they bought them.

• 이곳은 드라마 촬영지로 유명세를 타면서 외국 관광객들이 많이 찾고 있으며 드라마 관련 상품들도 눈에 많이 띈다.
This area has become famous as a place where a drama series was filmed, and, as a result, many foreign tourists visit, and a number of products related to the drama can be found.

(2). This expression is used when two or more actions occur simultaneously or when two or more states of affairs or situations exist together.
• 요즘은 동영상 강의를 들으며 출퇴근하는 사람이 많다.
Recently, there have been a lot of people who watch online lectures while commuting to and from work.

• 그 사람은 군인이며 정치가였다.
That person is a soldier and politician.

1. In a case in which this expression is used in the sense of (1) above and when listing three or more clauses together, it is better to alternate using the forms -고 and -(으)며 so that the same form is not used repeatedly in succession.
• 그곳은 마치 고향처럼 아늑하고 포근하며 정겨운 느낌을 주는 곳이다.
• 우리나라의 궁들은 전쟁을 거치면서 일부 건물이 사라지고 훼손되었으며 복원 사업을 거치면서 변형되기도 하였다.

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2. When this expression is used in the sense of (2) above, the subjects of the preceding and following clauses must be the same. The subject must occur once in the preceding clause.
수진 씨는 회사에 다니며 동호 씨는 공부하느라 무척 바쁘다. (X)
-> 수진 씨는 회사에 다니며 공부하느라 무척 바쁘다. (〇)

In addition, it can be replaced with -(으)면서 with no major change in meaning. However, -(으)며 has a more literary nuance than -(으)면서.
• 요즘은 동영상 강의를 들으면서 출퇴근하는 사람이 많다.
• 그 사람은 군인이면서 정치가였다.

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